UNIT 2: RECONSTRUCTING THE STRUCTURE
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During today's session the group edited down the final paragraphs we wanted to pick from each text. Following that, the first draft was read through. After discussing, we realised that "Behavioural Economics..." did not contribute to the overall argument, but rather was an emphasis on some points of the text above it. Therefore, we decided to drop that text. Simultaneously, "Descartes and Foucault: A Contrastive Introduction to Philosophy" was another text the hub cleared out. The reason for that decision, was because we brought in the original reference the ideas in that book were from, which is "The History of Sexuality: An Introduction; Michel Foucault"


As a consequence of deleting texts and bringing in a new one, we had to look over the structure again, and consider the editorial design of the Reader in mind. Because we were using two different languages of text, one language that we call Stories (autobiography, essays, poem) and the second that contain academic journal articles. Therefore, we needed to create a structure that was appropriate and made sense for two different sounds.




Left designed by Malena Ramírez and right designed by Hugo Dias and Soraia Eugénio.

To get a balance of the language and reading flow, the "stories" were placed in between the academic texts. With the design in mind, a way to show the different languages could be considering smaller pages on the "stories". Something along the lines of the examples above. In the next session, the readership will be discussed as well as the title will be filed and finalised, bringing us to the production stage.


UNIT 2: DIFINING COLLABORATION & READER STRUCTURE
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Coca-cola in collaboration with fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld (left). Artist Vanessa Beecroft staging a performance in collaboration with creative conceptualist Kanye at his Yeezy Season 2 fashion show (right).
 

Last week ended with a discourse session with Rachel Finney. The session that is part of Academic Development, was about defining the term "collaborative practice". A space of collaboration is a process of exchange. It emerges from dialogue between participants. It can be described as a mix of identities. There are two types of communications; Dialectic, which is to give and take in a conversation of opposite opinions, to eventually come to a common ground. Dialogic on the other hand, does not need to be resolved, but rather acknowledging each other's different opinions.


Lookng at summaries of each other's topics to group ourselves in hubs with matching subjects.

The collaborative hubs in the Unit 2 project was based on somewhat matching subjects. My hub, that included me, Kritika and Kiki, started to read three main literature texts for each member’s individual project. In that way find common themes. Control and power was a significant reoccurring theme in all three texts. Whether it is controlling a community, man being superior to animal, or customizing principles to control finance, they all fall under the idea of power to design an ideal position in society.

The title "How Power dynamics change perception: The idea of designing an ideal outcome" was formed, but later changed to "Influence and Perception: How power dynamics facilitate counter-ways of seeing". It was difficult to structure the texts, because they had different tone of voice. I had to therefore drop one of my main texts “Advertising in Saudi Arabia: Content and Regulation” and instead bring in an "Princess: A True Story of Life Behind the Veil in Saudi Arab" written by Jean P. Sasson. The tone of voice of this auto biography matched the sample we chose from Kiki's "The Great Silence" by Ted Chiang and "Shooting an Elephant" by George Orwell. 

Kritika's heavy economic texts were dropped as it did not contribute to the argument, we focused on the adverting aspect of her topic. At the point the structure of the Reader was forming. We tried three different structures.

1. Timeline - From man ruling over animal, to man controlling man and finally mass-media ruling over man. But that did not work as all of the topics are modern day concerns and could not be put in a specific timeline.

2. Grouping - Using categories to group the texts, in for example gender, species, cultural and mass-media. But that did not work either in consideration of the already different topics that our individual texts were discussing.

3. Argumentative -  Placing the texts in an argumentative way. Define the problem, reasoning to why it is a problem, consider other perspective to raise a debate and conclusion. This structure worked well as it was the only structure that made sense from a reader perspective.




Structure of Reader starting to form.

UNIT 2: WHAT IS A READER?
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The lectue was lead by Bryony Quinn, identifying what a Reader is. A reader is a collection of texts bound by a theme. The texts should be short, discrete and independent. However, when put together they form a digestible whole. The Reader should as a whole collection have an argument, a unique "process of reasoning". It is not an exercise in writing. But an exercise in editing existing work. Editing is the primary task of the Reader. Organising and the order of works should not be random and you can use visuals as well, if it benefits your Reader. Pay extra attention to beginning and end as it could be specifically important.
 
However, do not take the texts out of context for your theme's benefit. Connection between the visual and the texts are key. Images can be used to enhance or instead of a text.
 
The workshop that followed this lecture contained an exercise to unpick and then edit two texts we worked on in Unit 1, where we indentified the subject of our Master research project. The following is the outcome of the exercise.

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My project about the harmful attitude towards women within Saudi Arabian advertising, because that form of media heavily influences legislation, as well as personal morals.

 

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Who?
Goldie Hayko, student at University of Hawaiʻi.

What? “Effects of Advertising on Society: A Literary Review” A university literary review within a  Journal of Academic Writing called “Hohonu”

When? 2010

Why? The text discusses readings regarding the influence of advertising on human attitude and behaviour in society. It suggests interaction between the viewer and the ad might not be influential in the moment. However, it stays in our subconscious. It also suggests that society can be sent memos that we are not aware we are receiving.

Relevance of text to current research? It is relevant to my study as it examines how and when advertising can maximise or effect an already existing idea in a community.

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Who? Mushtaq Luqmani (Professor of Marketing and International Business, at Western Michigan University, USA), Ugur Yavas (Professor of Marketing at East Tennessee State University, USA.) and Zahir A. Quraeshi (Professor of Marketing and International Business, at Western Michigan University, USA.)

What? An academic journal called “Advertising in Saudi Arabia: Content and Regulation”

When? December 1989

Why? This source was discussing the five factors that influences Saudi ads; religion, traditions, consumerism, environmental attitude and government control. It was also saying that because of the lack of literature about conservative advertising principles, the Middle Easterns take the opportunity to study Western advertising to modify it to suit religious beliefs and tradition.

Relevance of text to current research? By understanding the principle of advertising in conservative areas such as Saudi Arabia. It will give me a deeper understanding to what controls it and why it is presented the way it is.


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(Edited short extracts of the second text)

“The Saudi legal system is unique in the sense that it identifies law with the personal command of the life “one and only one God, the Almighty”. The Islamic laws known as sharia are the master framework to which all legislation, existing and proposed, are referred and with which it must be compatible.”

 

“From an advertising perspective it may be useful to group countries into three categories: (1) religious dominant, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, (2) culture dominant, with religion as only one among several factors influencing culture, such as Japan and Korea, and (3) nonpartisan, that is culture and religion have lesser influence, such as Sweden and Austria.”

 

“As a country in transition, Saudi Arabia presents an opportunity to study how Western-oriented business and and advertising practices are modified to accommodate religious beliefs, traditions and life-styles.”


“Because Saudi Arabia is the largest and economically strongest member of the GCC (Gulf Co-operation Council), it will shape significantly the legal regulations which will oversee all commercial activity (including advertising) among the member states.”


UNIT 2: BRIEF
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I just started a category called "MA Graphic Media Design" on here. It is going to be a documentation of my Master studies. It is not as much for outside viewers, but mainly for me, to keep track of my process and be able to trace back my steps. However, it could also be interesting for others to get an insight of what a Master degree in Graphic Design contains of.

This degree contains of 4 Units. Last term, or actually today (the first day of the second term) to be more exact, we completed the final hand-in of Unit 1. The first Unit, was three chapters (three different projects) and it focused on methodology and how you can do research projects using different approaches and techniques. It aimed to explore the globe through graphic design practice, theory and history and to establish my role as a designer in society. Through working independently and in a collaborative studio, examine readings, creative writing and graphic experiments from a practical, critical and reflective point of view, with the intention of finally framing the research outline of my MA degree. By the end of that Unit, I made a rough outline of the subject of my degree;

My project is about the harmful attitudes towards women within Saudi Arabian advertising, because that form of media heavily influences legislation, as well as personal morals.

A visual summary of the three chapters of Unit 1 and the background to my subject, you can view my Unit 1 Research Portfolio here!

Today we got the brief for Unit 2, it is short and will at a point overlap with Unit 3 that will start in approximately three weeks. The brief for this unit, is a collaborative project. The aim is to give you the chance to identify, form and develop collaborative working relationships with a range of potential partners. The final outcome would be a collaborative Reader publication and an individual Research Portfolio that would be handed-in by end of March before Easter break.


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