The lectue was lead by Bryony Quinn, identifying what a Reader is. A reader is a collection of texts bound by a theme. The texts should be short, discrete and independent. However, when put together they form a digestible whole. The Reader should as a whole collection have an argument, a unique "process of reasoning". It is not an exercise in writing. But an exercise in editing existing work. Editing is the primary task of the Reader. Organising and the order of works should not be random and you can use visuals as well, if it benefits your Reader. Pay extra attention to beginning and end as it could be specifically important.
However, do not take the texts out of context for your theme's benefit. Connection between the visual and the texts are key. Images can be used to enhance or instead of a text.
The workshop that followed this lecture contained an exercise to unpick and then edit two texts we worked on in Unit 1, where we indentified the subject of our Master research project. The following is the outcome of the exercise.

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My project about the harmful attitude towards women within Saudi Arabian advertising, because that form of media heavily influences legislation, as well as personal morals.


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Goldie Hayko, student at University of Hawaiʻi.

What? “Effects of Advertising on Society: A Literary Review” A university literary review within a  Journal of Academic Writing called “Hohonu”

When? 2010

Why? The text discusses readings regarding the influence of advertising on human attitude and behaviour in society. It suggests interaction between the viewer and the ad might not be influential in the moment. However, it stays in our subconscious. It also suggests that society can be sent memos that we are not aware we are receiving.

Relevance of text to current research? It is relevant to my study as it examines how and when advertising can maximise or effect an already existing idea in a community.

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Who? Mushtaq Luqmani (Professor of Marketing and International Business, at Western Michigan University, USA), Ugur Yavas (Professor of Marketing at East Tennessee State University, USA.) and Zahir A. Quraeshi (Professor of Marketing and International Business, at Western Michigan University, USA.)

What? An academic journal called “Advertising in Saudi Arabia: Content and Regulation”

When? December 1989

Why? This source was discussing the five factors that influences Saudi ads; religion, traditions, consumerism, environmental attitude and government control. It was also saying that because of the lack of literature about conservative advertising principles, the Middle Easterns take the opportunity to study Western advertising to modify it to suit religious beliefs and tradition.

Relevance of text to current research? By understanding the principle of advertising in conservative areas such as Saudi Arabia. It will give me a deeper understanding to what controls it and why it is presented the way it is.

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(Edited short extracts of the second text)

“The Saudi legal system is unique in the sense that it identifies law with the personal command of the life “one and only one God, the Almighty”. The Islamic laws known as sharia are the master framework to which all legislation, existing and proposed, are referred and with which it must be compatible.”


“From an advertising perspective it may be useful to group countries into three categories: (1) religious dominant, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, (2) culture dominant, with religion as only one among several factors influencing culture, such as Japan and Korea, and (3) nonpartisan, that is culture and religion have lesser influence, such as Sweden and Austria.”


“As a country in transition, Saudi Arabia presents an opportunity to study how Western-oriented business and and advertising practices are modified to accommodate religious beliefs, traditions and life-styles.”

“Because Saudi Arabia is the largest and economically strongest member of the GCC (Gulf Co-operation Council), it will shape significantly the legal regulations which will oversee all commercial activity (including advertising) among the member states.”

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